VTA – Independent Indicative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒻ…

1s → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓐ
1s → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᐙᐤ
1p → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᓐ
1p → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᓐ

2s → 1s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓐ
2s → 1p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᓐ
2p → 1s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᐙᐤ
2p → 1p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᓐ

3s → 1s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᒄ
3s → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓐ
3s → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᒄ
3s → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᐤ
3s → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓇᐤ
3p → 1s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᒡ
3p → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓇᒡ
3p → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᒡ
3p → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᐗᒡ
3p → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓇᐗᒡ

1s → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐤ
1s → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐗᒡ
2s → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐤ
2s → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐗᒡ
1p → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᓐ
1p → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᓇᒡ
2p → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐙᐤ
2p → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐙᐗᒡ
21 → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓇᐤ
21 → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓇᐗᒡ

1s → 4  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔨᐤᐦ
1p → 4  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᓈᓐᐦ
2s → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔨᐤᐦ
2p → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᐙᐤᐦ
21 → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᓇᐤᐦ
3s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᐤ
3p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᐗᒡ
3s → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᐤ
3p → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᐗᒡ

4  → 1  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔨᐤᐦ
4  → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓐᐦ
4  → 2  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔨᐤᐦ
4  → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᐤᐦ
4  → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓇᐤᐦ
4  → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐤ
4  → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐗᒡ
4  → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᔨᐤᐦ
4  → 6  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᔨᐤᐦ

5  → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔨᐤᐦ

Passives
1s  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓐ
2s  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓐ
3s  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᐤ

1p  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᓐ
2p  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᐙᐤ
21  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᓇᐤ
3p  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᐗᒡ

4   ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᔨᐤᐦ

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ᒫᐦᒄ ᐅᒥᔻᒋᒧᐎᓐ

ᐱᔅᒋᐦᑕᓯᓇᐦᐃᑲᓐ 1

1 ᐁᑯᑕ ᒉᐦᑖᐱᐦᒉᐸᔨᓂᔨᒡ ᐁ ᒥᔻᒋᒥᑯᓰᑦ ᒥᓈᑲᓐ᙮
2 ᑳ ᐃᑕᓯᓇᐦᐃᑳᑌᔨᒡ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐅᒪᓯᓇᐦᐃᒉᐎᓂᐦᒡ ᐅᒋᔅᒋᐌᐦᐃᒉᐤ ᔕᔮᐦᐆ,
« ᓂᑲ ᓃᑳᓂᑎᔕᐦᐙᐤ ᐊᐌᓐ ᒉ ᐯᑖᒋᒧᑦ ᒉᒌ ᒣᔅᑲᓈᐦᑳᔅᒄ᙮
3 « ᐯᐦᑖᑯᓯᐤ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁ ᐸᐹ ᑌᐺᑦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐊᔦᔅᑲᐎᐦᑖᐙᐦᒄ ᐅᑎᐯᔨᐦᒋᑫᐤ ᐅᒣᔅᑲᓇᐤ,
« ᓀᔥᑦ ᑾᔭᔅᑯᔑᒧᐦᑖᐙᐦᒄ᙮
4 ᐁᒄ ᑲᔭᐹ ᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᑦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐ, ᐁ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᒉᑦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐁ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᑦ ᐊᓂᔨᐤ ᑴᔅᑳᑎᓰᐎ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᒉᐎᓂᔨᐤ ᒉ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐌᐯᔨᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᒀᐤ ᐗᓂᑑᑕᒧᐎᓐᐦ᙮
5 ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᓈᑎᑯᐤ ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ ᐁ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᔨᒡᐦ ᒥᓯᐌ ᐦᐆᑖᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᔅᐱᐦᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᓖᒨᑌᓈᒥᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ᙮ ᑳ ᒌᔑ ᐙᐐᐦᑕᒥᔨᒡᐦ ᒫᒃ ᐅᐗᓂᑑᑕᒧᐎᓂᔨᐤᐦ, ᒌ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑕᐌᐤ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐦᑌᓐ ᐲᐦᒡ᙮
ᐦᐋᓇᓐ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᒋᒋᔥᑲᒻ ᐊᔮᓐᐦ ᐅᐱᔅᒀᐎᑲᓀᐤᐦ ᐅᐲᐙᔨᐤᐦ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐅᔑᐦᑖᑲᓂᐎᔨᒀᐤᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐲᔖᑲᓀᔮᐲᔨᐤ ᒌ ᐅᐸᐦᑯᑌᐦᐅᓂᐤ᙮ ᒀᔥᒀᔥᑯᐦᒋᔒᔕ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐋᒨ ᔔᑳᔨᐤ ᒌ ᐅᒦᒋᒥᐤ᙮
7 ᐁᑯᑌ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᔑ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᑦ,
« ᑲᑕ ᑕᑯᔑᓄ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁᑕᑕᐤ ᐁ ᓲᐦᑳᑎᓰᑦ ᐃᔅᐱᔖᑦ ᓃᔭ, ᐅᒪᔅᒋᓯᓀᔮᐲᐦ ᒫᒃ ᓇᒪᐐᔭ ᒣᒋᒻ ᓂᑌᐯᔨᐦᑖᑯᓯᐙᓐ ᒉ ᓇᐌᐸᔨᐦᐅᐗᒃ ᒉᒌ ᐋᐱᐦᑯᓇᒧᒃ᙮
8 « ᓂᐲᐦᒡ ᓃᔭ ᒋᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᑎᓈᐙᐤ, ᐐᔭ ᒫᒃ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᔨᒡᐦ ᒋᑲ ᐅᐦᒋ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᑯᐙᐤ᙮
9 ᐁᑯᑕ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐯᒋ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᑦ ᔔ ᓯᓛᑎᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐊᓂᑌ ᓖᓪ ᔅᒌᐦᒡ᙮ ᒌ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᑯᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐦᑌᓐ ᐲᐦᒡ᙮
10 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᑲᐹᑦ ᔔ ᒌ ᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ ᒌᔑᑯᔨᐤ ᐁ ᑖᑐᐸᔨᓂᔨᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᒬᐦᒡ ᐅᒦᒦᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᔑ ᔮᔒᑐᑖᑯᑦ᙮
11 ᐁᒄ ᑳ ᐯᐦᑖᑯᓯᑦ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐊᓂᑌ ᑭᐦᒋᑮᔑᑯᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᒌᔭ ᑳ ᓵᒋᐦᐃᑖᓐ ᓂᑯᓯᔅ, ᑌᑲᔥ ᒋᓇᐦᐃᔭᐌᐦᐃᓐ᙮
12 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᒌ ᐃᔑᑎᔕᐦᐅᑯᐤ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ᙮
13 ᓀᒥᑕᓇᐤ ᒌ ᑕᐦᑐᒌᔑᑴᐤ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᐁ ᑯᑴᒌᐦᐃᑯᑦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᑯᑴᒋᐦᐃᐌᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᒌ ᑲᓇᐌᔨᒥᑯᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐁᓐᒋᓪᐦ ᒣᒀᒡ ᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᑦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁ ᐃᐦᑖᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᐌᓰᓴ᙮
14 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᑳ ᒋᐸᐦᐙᑲᓂᐎᔨᒡᐦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ, ᒌ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᐤ ᔔ ᐊᓂᑌ ᓖᓕᐦᒡ ᐁ ᒥᔻᒋᒫᑦ ᒪᓂᑑᐦ,
15 ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐋᔥ ᑎᐱᐸᔨᓐ᙮ ᐯᔓᓈᑾᓂᔨᐤ ᒪᓂᑑ ᐅᒋᒫᐎᐎᓐ᙮ ᑴᔅᑳᑎᓰᒄ ᓀᔥᑦ ᑖᐺᐦᑕᒧᒄ ᐆ ᒥᔻᒋᒧᐎᓐ᙮
16 ᐁ ᐱᒫᔕᑳᒣᑦ ᒫᒃ ᓖᓪ ᑲᐦᐃᑲᓂᐦᒡ, ᒌ ᐙᐸᒣᐤ ᒨᓐᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐐᒋᔖᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᓐᑕᓓᐦ ᐁ ᐸᒋᑕᐦᐙᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᓵᑲᐦᐃᑲᓂᐦᒡ᙮ ᐁᑯᑌ ᑳ ᐃᔑ ᐸᑳᔅᒋᐦᐅᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐐᒋᔖᓂᑐᔨᒡᐦ᙮
17 ᔔ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᐃᑌᐤ,
« ᐯᒋ ᓅᓱᓀᐦᐅᒄ᙮ ᒋᑲ ᐃᔑᐦᐃᑎᓈᐙᐤ ᐊᔨᔑᔨᓂᐗᒡ ᒉᒌ ᐱᑕᐦᐅᔦᑯᒡ᙮
18 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑲᑌᐗᒡ ᐅᑦᐊᐦᔭᐲᐙᐤᐦ ᐁ ᐊᑎ ᓅᓱᓀᐦᐙᑣᐤ᙮
19 ᐊᐗᓯᑌᔒᔥ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᑦ, ᒌ ᐙᐸᒣᐤ ᑳ ᐐᒋᔖᓂᑐᔨᒡᐦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐦᑯᑉᐦ (ᐸᑏ ᐅᑯᓯᓴ), ᒌᒫᓂᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᐦᑖᔨᒡᐦ ᐁ ᐗᐌᑕᐦᔭᐯᔨᒡᐦ᙮
20 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑐᒣᐤ᙮ ᐁᑯᑕ ᒫᒃ ᐊᓂᑕ ᒌᒫᓂᐦᒡ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒋ ᓇᑲᑖᑣᐤ ᐊᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᐅᐦᑖᐐᐙᐤᐦ ᐸᑏᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᐋᐸᒋᐦᐋᑲᓐᐦ ᐁ ᐊᑎ ᓅᓱᓀᐦᐙᑣᐤ᙮
21 ᐁᒄ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᑣᐤ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐦᐆᒨᑌᓈᒥᐦᒡ᙮ ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᒌᔑᑳᔨᒡ ᒌ ᐲᐦᑐᒉᐤ ᔔ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐐ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᑦ᙮
22 ᒌ ᒫᒪᔅᑳᑕᒬᐗᒡ ᒫᒃ ᐃᔨᓂᐗᒡ ᐅᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᐎᓂᔨᐤ ᐌᓴ ᒌ ᐃᔑ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒪᐌᐤ ᒬᐦᒡ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁ ᐅᒋᒫᐌᔨᐦᑖᑯᓯᑦ, ᓇᒪᐐᔭ ᒬᐦᒡ ᐊᓂᒌ ᑳ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᑣᐤ ᐗᔭᔕᐌᐎᓂᔨᐤ᙮
23 ᓴᔅᒋᑯᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᑌᐺᐤ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᐦᒡ ᐃᔨᓂᐤ ᑳ ᐲᐦᒋᔥᑳᑯᑦ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᐁᑳ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᔨᒡᐦ,
24 ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᑖᓐ ᐙ ᐃᐦᑑᑕᐎᔮᐦᒡ ᔔ ᓯᓛᑎᐦᒡ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒌᔭᓐ᙮ ᒋᒌ ᑕᑯᔑᓐ ᐋ ᒉᒌ ᓂᔑᐗᓈᒋᐦᐃᔮᐦᒡ? ᒋᒋᔅᒉᔨᒥᑎᓐ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᐎᔭᓐ, ᒌᔭ ᐅᐸᔦᐦᒋᓰᒻᐦ ᒪᓂᑑ!
25 ᔔ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᒋᑐᑌᐤ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐁᑳ ᒋᑐ! ᐯᒋ ᐗᔭᐐ ᐎᔮᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ!
26 ᐊᓐ ᒫᒃ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᒄ ᐁᑳ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᑦ ᒌ ᑯᔥᑯᔥᑯᐸᔨᐦᐁᐤ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᐃᔨᓂᐤᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᒌ ᐊᔮᔑᐦᑴᐤ ᐁ ᐯᒋ ᐗᔭᐐᑦ᙮
27 ᑳ ᐃᔅᐱᔑ ᒫᒪᔅᑳᑕᐦᒀᐤ ᒫᒃ ᒥᓯᐌ ᒌ ᑯᑴᒋᒥᑐᐗᒡ,
« ᒉᒀᓐ ᐆ? ᐅᔥᒋ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᐎᓐ ᐋ? ᒬᐦᒡ ᐅᒋᒫᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᑕᔕᐌᑦ ᐙᐙᒡ ᐁ ᐱᔑᒋᐦᐃᑯᑦ ᐁᑳ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ!
28 ᐁᑯᑕ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐊᑎ ᒥᓯᐦᑌᐸᔨᓂᔨᒡ ᐁ ᑎᐹᒋᒥᑯᓰᑦ ᔔ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁ ᐃᔅᐱᐦᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓖᓕᐦᒡ᙮
29 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐗᔭᐐᑣᐤ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᐦᒡ, ᒌ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᐌᐗᒡ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐐᒋᔩᐦᒡ ᒨᓐᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᓐᑕᓓᐦ ᐁ ᐐᒉᐎᑯᑣᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐦᑯᑉᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ᙮
30 ᒨᓐ ᒫᒃ ᐅᓯᑯᓴ ᒌ ᐱᒥᔑᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᐁ ᒋᔑᑌᐙᔅᐱᓀᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᒌ ᐐᐦᑕᒪᐙᑲᓂᐎᐤ ᒫᒃ ᔔ ᑳ ᐯᒋ ᐲᐦᑐᒉᐙᑦ᙮
31 ᑳ ᐅᑎᐦᑖᑦ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᐅᑎᓂᔅᒉᓀᐤ ᐁ ᐅᐦᐱᓈᑦ᙮ ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑲᑎᑯᐤ ᐅᒋᔑᑌᐙᔅᐱᓀᐎᓐ, ᐁᒄ ᑳ ᐊᑎ ᐋᐸᑎᓯᐙᑦ᙮
32 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐅᑖᑯᔑᔨᒡ, ᑳ ᐃᔥᒀ ᐸᐦᒋᔑᒧᔨᒡᐦ ᐲᓯᒶ, ᒌ ᐯᑕᒪᐙᑲᓂᐎᐤ ᔔ ᒥᓯᐌ ᑳ ᐋᐦᑯᓯᔨᒡᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐲᐦᒋᔥᑳᑯᔨᒡᐦ ᒪᒋ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ᙮
33 ᒥᓯᐌ ᑳ ᐃᑕᔑᑣᐤ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐅᑌᓈᐦᒡ ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᒫᐗᒋᐦᐃᑐᐗᒡ ᐊᓂᑕ ᐃᔥᒀᐦᑌᒥᐦᒡ᙮
34 ᒌ ᒦᓇᐙᒋᐦᐁᐤ ᒫᒃ ᒥᐦᒉᑦ ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ ᓇᓈᐦᑲᐤ ᑳ ᐃᑖᔅᐱᓀᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᒌ ᐗᔭᐐᑎᔕᐦᐌᐤ ᓀᔥᑦ ᒥᐦᒉᑦ ᒪᒋ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ, ᒥᒄ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᐅᐦᒋᐦᐁᐤ ᐁ ᐊᔭᒥᔨᒡᐦ ᐁ ᒌ ᒋᔅᒉᔨᒥᑯᑦ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᐎᑦ ᐐᔭ᙮
35 ᐐᐸᒡ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᒉᒋᔐᐹᔮᔨᒡ, ᑆᒧᔥ ᑳ ᐙᐸᓂᔨᒡ, ᒌ ᐗᓂᔥᑳᐤ ᔔ᙮ ᒌ ᐗᔭᐐᐤ ᒫᒃ ᒉ ᓇᑕᐎ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐋᑦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᓂᐎᔨᒡ᙮
36 ᐁᒄ ᒫᒃ ᒨᓐ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐐᒉᐎᑯᑦ ᒌ ᓈᓇᑕᐙᐸᒣᐗᒡ᙮
37 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᒥᔅᑲᐙᑣᐤ ᒌ ᐃᑌᐗᒡ,
« ᒥᓯᐌ ᐊᐌᓐ ᒋᓈᓇᑕᐙᐸᒥᒄ!
38 ᔔ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᔥᑴᐗᔑᐦᐁᐤ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐋᐦᒌᐤᐦ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᑖᐤ᙮ ᑯᑕᒃᐦ ᐅᑌᓇᐤᐦ ᑳ ᐯᔓᓈᑯᐦᒀᐤᐦ ᓈᑌᑖᐤ ᒉᒌ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᔮᓐ ᐊᓂᑌ ᓀᔥᑦ᙮ ᐁᐗᒄ ᐌᓴᓐ ᐌᐦᒌ ᑕᑯᔑᓂᔮᓐ᙮
39 ᒌ ᐸᐹᒧᐦᑌᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐁ ᐃᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓖᓕᐦᒡ ᐁ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᑦ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐅᑦᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᔩᐦᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐁ ᐗᔭᐐᑎᔕᐦᐙᑦ ᒪᒋ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ᙮
40 ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᓈᑎᑯᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐃᔨᓂᐤᐦ ᑳ ᐅᔕᑳᐙᔅᐱᓀᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᑳ ᐅᒋᐦᒌᐦᑯᓇᐲᔥᑖᑯᑦ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑐᑕᒫᑯᐤ ᐁ ᐃᑎᑯᑦ,
« ᒌᔥᐱᓐ ᐐ ᑑᑕᒪᓀ, ᒋᑲ ᒌ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᐦᐃᓐ᙮
41 ᑳ ᒋᑎᒫᒉᔨᒫᑦ ᒫᒃ ᔔ ᒌ ᔓᐎᓂᔅᒉᔩᔥᑕᐌᐤ ᐁ ᓵᒥᓈᑦ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᓂᐐ ᑑᑌᓐ᙮ ᒋᑲ ᐐ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᐦᐃᑲᐎᓐ!
42 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑲᑎᑯᐤ ᐅᔕᑳᐙᔅᐱᓀᐎᓂᔨᐤ, ᒌ ᒦᓇᐙᑎᓰᐤ ᒫᒃ᙮
43 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᒋᐦᒋᑎᔕᐦᐌᐤ ᓲᐦᒃ ᐁ ᐊᔮᒀᒥᒫᑦ,
44 ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐋᔨᑌ ᐁᑳ ᒉ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐐᐦᑕᒪᐗᑦ ᐊᐌᓐ, ᒥᒄ ᒫᒃ ᓇᑕᐎ ᐙᐸᐦᑎᔨᓱᔥᑕᐤ ᐅᒪᒍᔥᑌᐦᐊᒫᒉᐤ ᐁᒄ ᒉ ᐸᒋᑎᓇᒪᓐ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐃᑕᔕᐌᑯᐸᓀ ᐊᓂᔮ ᔐ ᒉᒌ ᓅᑾᐦᒡ ᑖᐺ ᐁ ᒌ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᐦᐃᑲᐎᔭᓐ᙮
45 ᑕᔭᑯᒡ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᒋᐦᑐᐦᑌᑦ ᓭᐦᒉᔾ ᒌ ᐊᑎ ᐙᐐᐦᑕᒻ ᐅᑎᐹᒋᒧᐎᓐ ᐲᐦᔨᒻ ᐁᑳ ᐙᓂᔅᒉ ᐁ ᒌ ᐲᐦᑐᒉᑦ ᔔ ᐅᑌᓈᐦᒡ᙮ ᐋᑕ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᑦ ᒫᓐᐦ ᐗᔭᐐᑎᒣ ᐊᓂᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ, ᔮᐱᒡ ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᓈᑎᑯᐤ ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ ᒥᓯᐌ ᐗᔦᔥ ᐁ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᔨᒡᐦ᙮

A Grammar of Waswanipi Cree

Welcome to what will hopefully become a comprehensive grammar of the Cree dialect spoken by the Waswanipi people. Being the dialect my family speaks, I have naturally always had a special interest for it. However, there is another reason for my interest in this dialect that revolves around the number of its idiosyncrasies. In fact, the dialect is classified as Southern East Cree, but very little has been said about the many features that distinguish it from the way Southern East Cree is spoken in the region. I hope to draw from my many years of experience working on lexicographic projects for the various regional dialects, including Moose Cree, Atikamekw, and the various dialects of East Cree, to eventually elucidate some of these distinctive features in the dialect spoken by the Waswanipi people. Ultimately, these features will testify to the continuous nature of Cree, also appropriately known as the Cree dialect continuum. I will be updating this grammar as time permits. For now, some basic verb paradigms.

Word Classes

Nouns

I (inanimate)

Independent
Dependent

A (animate)

Independent
Dependent

Verbs

AI (animate intransitive stems)

Independent

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Dubitative (Relational)
Subjective
Subjective (Relational)

Conjunct

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Subjunctive
Subjunctive (Relational)

Imperative

Immediate
Immediate (Relational)

II (intransitive inanimate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Dubitative
Subjective

Conjunct

Indicative
Dubitative
Subjunctive

TA (transitive animate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Dubitative

Conjunct

Indicative
Subjunctive

Imperative

Immediate

TI (transitive inanimate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative

Conjunct

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Subjunctive
Subjunctive (Relational)

Imperative

Immediate
Immediate (Relational)

Particles

Morphology

Nominal Morphology

Verbal Morphology

VTI – Independent Dubitative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

1s → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᑐᒉ
1s → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
2s → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᑐᒉ
2s → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
3s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒨᑐᒉ

1p → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓈᑐᒉ
1p → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
21 → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓈᑐᒉ
21 → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
2p → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᐙᑐᒉ
2p → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᐙᑐᒉᓐᐦ
3p → 4 ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒨᑐᒉᓂᒡ

4  → 5 ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ

Passive
3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᑐᒉ
4s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔩᑐᒉ

3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ

Note:  The …ᑐᒉ… sequence of the dubitative inflexion is almost always contracted to …ᑦᒉ… in everyday speech.

VTI – Independent Indicative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

1s → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓐ
1s → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓐᐦ
2s → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓐ
2s → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓐᐦ
3s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ

1p → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓐ
1p → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓐᐦ
21 → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓇᐤ
21 → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᓇᐤᐦ
2p → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᐙᐤ
2p → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑌᓈᐙᐤᐦ
3p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᒡ

4  → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔨᐤᐦ

Passive
3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᐤ
4s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᐤ

3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᐤᐦ
4p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᐤᐦ

Note: The Cree language (including the neighbouring East Cree dialects) does not generally mark the plural of objects in TI verbs. Dialects that do exhibit this feature are those whose speakers have sustained close contact with speakers of Anishinabemowin and this is certainly the case with the Waswanipi people. The passive inflection …ᑳᑌ– can also be attributed to the influence of this closely related Algonquian language. The Waswanipi dialect has this passive form in common with the Atikamekw and Moose Cree dialects.

VAI – Conjunct Subjunctive (Relational)

ᐱᒧᐦᑌ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᑫ
2s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᑌ
3s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᑌ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᒋᐦᑌ
21 ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᐦᑴ
2p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐌᑴ
3p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᑣᐌᓂᒡ

Note: Neighbouring East Cree dialects feature …ᐎᒉ as the 1st person form instead of …ᐗᑫ. In this respect, the Waswanipi dialect agrees with the neighbouring Atikamekw dialect as well as Moose Cree.

VAI – Conjuct Subjunctive

ᐱᒧᐦᑌ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔮᓀ
2s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔭᓀ
3s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᑌ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔮᐦᒉ
21 ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔭᐦᑴ
2p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔦᑴ
3p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᑣᐌᓂᒡ

ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ
4s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔨᑌᓐᐦ
4p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔨᑣᐌᓐᐦ

0  ᐱᒧᐦᑖᓂᐎᒉ  0′  ᐱᒧᐦᑖᓂᐎᔨᒉ

Note: Neighbouring East Cree dialects feature …ᔨᒉᓐᐦ for the obviative while the dialect here features …ᔨᑌᓐᐦ instead, akin to the Atikamekw …ritena. The latter also features …rite, a form it shares with the Moose Factory dialect where it is written as …lite.

VAI – Conjuct Indicative (Relational)

ᐱᒧᐦᑌ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s  ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᒃ
2s  ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᑦ
3s  ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᑦ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p  ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᒋᐦᑦ
21  ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐗᐦᒄ
2p  ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐌᒄ
3p  ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᑣᐤ

Note: Neighbouring East Cree dialects feature …ᐎᒡ as the 1st person form instead of the …ᐗᒃ found here. In this respect, the Waswanipi dialect agrees with the neighbouring Atikamekw dialect, but also with the Innu dialects spoken to the east and the Moose Cree dialect spoken to the west.

VAI – Independent Subjective (Relational)

ᐱᒧᐦᑌ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᐃᔥᑲ ᓂᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᓈ
2s ᐃᔥᑲ ᒋᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᓈ
3s ᐃᔥᑲ ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐌᐙ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᐃᔥᑲ ᓂᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᓈᓈ
21 ᐃᔥᑲ ᒋᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᓈᓇᐙ
2p ᐃᔥᑲ ᒋᐱᒧᐦᑌᐙᓈᐙᐙ
3p ᐃᔥᑲ ᐱᒧᐦᑌᐌᐗᒌ

Note:  Some speakers use a levelled out paradigm where the third person plural form also ends in ᐋ.

VAI – Conjuct Indicative

ᐱᒧᐦᑌ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔮᓐ
2s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔭᓐ
3s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᑦ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔮᐦᒡ
21 ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔭᐦᒄ
2p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔦᒄ
3p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᑣᐤ

ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ
4s ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔨᒡᐦ
4p ᐱᒧᐦᑌᔨᑣᐤᐦ

0  ᐱᒧᐦᑖᓂᐎᒡ  0′  ᐱᒧᐦᑖᓂᐎᔨᒡ