VTA – Independent Dubitative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒻ…

1s → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᑐᒉ
1s → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᐙᑐᒉ
1p → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᓈᑐᒉ
1p → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᓈᑐᒉ

2s → 1s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᑐᒉ
2s → 1p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᓈᑐᒉ
2p → 1s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᐙᑐᒉ
2p → 1p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᓈᑐᒉ

3s → 1s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉ
3s → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓈᑐᒉ
3s → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉ
3s → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᑐᒉ
3s → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᑐᒉ
3p → 1s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ

1s → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉ
1s → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉᓂᒡ
2s → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉ
2s → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉᓂᒡ
1p → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᓈᑐᒉ
1p → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ
2p → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐙᑐᒉ
2p → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐙᑐᒉᓂᒡ
21 → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᑐᒉ
21 → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ

1s → 4  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
1p → 4  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᓈᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
2s → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
2p → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᐙᑐᒉᓐᐦ
21 → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
3s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᑐᒉ
3p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3s → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᑐᒉ
3p → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᑐᒉᓂᒡ

4  → 1  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 2  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉ
4  → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉᓂᒡ

5  → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ

Passives
1s  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᑐᒉ
2s  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᑐᒉ
3s  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐐᑐᒉ

1p  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᓈᑐᒉ
2p  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᐙᑐᒉ
21  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᓈᑐᒉ
3p  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐐᑐᒉ

4   ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ

Note:  The …ᑐᒉ… sequence of the dubitative inflexion is almost always contracted to …ᑦᒉ… in everyday speech. Additionally, forms where the subject is a 4th person are generally difficult for most Cree-speakers to produce, including myself, and were elicited with much difficulty from other fluent speakers. Forms involving a 4th person subject and further obviative persons were unknown to me and other Cree-speakers whom I consulted.

VTI – Conjunct Dubitative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐙᓀ
2s ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐗᓀ
3s ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᑴ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐙᐦᒉ
21 ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐗᐦᑴ
2p ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐌᑴ
3p ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐙᑴᓂᒡ

ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ
4s ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔨᑴᓐᐦ
4p ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔨᐙᑴᓐᐦ

Passive
3s ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᑴ
4s ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᑴ

3p ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᐙᑴᓐᐦ
4p ᑫᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᐙᑴᓐᐦ

Note:  Initial Change is frequently omitted, especially by younger speakers.

VAI – Conjunct Dubitative

ᐱᒧᐦᑌ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᐯᒧᐦᑌᐙᓀ
2s ᐯᒧᐦᑌᐗᓀ
3s ᐯᒧᐦᑌᑴ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᐯᒧᐦᑌᐙᐦᒉ
21 ᐯᒧᐦᑌᐗᐦᑴ
2p ᐯᒧᐦᑌᐌᑴ
3p ᐯᒧᐦᑌᐙᑴᓂᒡ

ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ
4s ᐯᒧᐦᑌᔨᑴᓐᐦ
4p ᐯᒧᐦᑌᔨᐙᑴᓐᐦ

0  ᐯᒧᐦᑖᓂᐎᑴ  0′  ᐯᒧᐦᑖᓂᐎᔨᑴ

Note:  Initial Change is frequently omitted, especially by younger speakers.

VII – Conjunct Dubitative

ᑕᐦᑳ…

3s ᑌᐦᑳᑴ
4s ᑌᐦᑳᔨᑴ

3p ᑌᐦᑳᐙᑴᓐᐦ
4p ᑌᐦᑳᔨᐙᑴᓐᐦ

ᐱᒦᐗᓐ…

3s ᐯᒦᐗᓄᑴ
4s ᐯᒦᐗᓂᔨᑴ

3p ᐯᒦᐗᓄᐙᑴᓐᐦ
4p ᐯᒦᐗᓂᔨᐙᑴᓐᐦ

Note:  Initial Change is frequently omitted, especially by younger speakers.

A Grammar of Waswanipi Cree

Welcome to what will hopefully become a comprehensive grammar of the Cree dialect spoken by the Waswanipi people. Being the dialect my family speaks, I have naturally always had a special interest for it. However, there is another reason for my interest in this dialect that revolves around the number of its idiosyncrasies. In fact, the dialect is classified as Southern East Cree, but very little has been said about the many features that distinguish it from the way Southern East Cree is spoken in the region. I hope to draw from my many years of experience working on lexicographic projects for the various regional dialects, including Moose Cree, Atikamekw, and the various dialects of East Cree, to eventually elucidate some of these distinctive features in the dialect spoken by the Waswanipi people. Ultimately, these features will testify to the continuous nature of Cree, also appropriately known as the Cree dialect continuum. I will be updating this grammar as time permits. For now, some basic verb paradigms.

Word Classes

Nouns

I (inanimate)

Independent
Dependent

A (animate)

Independent
Dependent

Verbs

AI (animate intransitive stems)

Independent

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Dubitative (Relational)
Subjective
Subjective (Relational)

Conjunct

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Subjunctive
Subjunctive (Relational)

Imperative

Immediate
Immediate (Relational)

II (intransitive inanimate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Dubitative
Subjective

Conjunct

Indicative
Dubitative
Subjunctive

TA (transitive animate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Dubitative

Conjunct

Indicative
Subjunctive

Imperative

Immediate

TI (transitive inanimate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative

Conjunct

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Subjunctive
Subjunctive (Relational)

Imperative

Immediate
Immediate (Relational)

Particles

Morphology

Nominal Morphology

Verbal Morphology