VTI – Conjuct Subjunctive (Relational)

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᑫ
2s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᑌ
3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᑌ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᒋᐦᑌ
21 ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐦᑫ
2p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒬᑴ
3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᑣᐌᓂᒡ

Note: Neighbouring East Cree dialects feature …ᒧᒉ as the 1st person form instead of the …ᒧᑫ form found here. In this respect, the Waswanipi form agrees with the neighbouring Atikamekw dialect, and also with the Moose Cree dialect spoken to the west, where the form is the non-contracted equivalent,  …ᒶᑫ.

VTI – Conjuct Indicative (Relational)

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᒃ
2s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᑦ
3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᑦ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᒋᐦᑦ
21 ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒧᐦᒄ
2p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒬᒄ
3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᑣᐤ

Note: Neighbouring East Cree dialects feature …ᒧᒡ as the 1st person form instead of the …ᒧᒃ form found here. In this respect, the Waswanipi form agrees with the neighbouring Atikamekw dialect, and also with the Moose Cree dialect spoken to the west, where the form is the non-contracted equivalent,  …ᒶᒃ.

The Jimiken Report

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Lawrence Jimiken, 1949-2015 (photo by Mélanie Chaplier at Old Nemaska, July 2010)

Anyone who ever had anything to do in Nemaska would probably have had the good fortune of having to speak to Lawrence Jimiken. This walking encyclopedia, as many people described him, would often be an intermediary between Nemaska and the outside world as he graciously shared his time and thoughts with anyone who needed him. Those who may never have met him in person nonetheless benefitted from his role as our nation’s Chief Electoral Officer, a position he held for many years that had him assuring the democratic process was respected during elections. Lawrence benefitted our people in many ways. In fact, he even contributed to our knowledge of the Cree language. This being a blog on the Cree language, I thought I’d honour his memory by sharing the little I know about this contribution of his.

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Lawrence Jimiken, 1949-2015 (photo by Patricia Raynault-Desgagné, August 2014)

Pedagogical materials for teaching the Cree language were basically non-existent in the 1970s before the establishment of the Cree School Board. In 1973, an enterprising school principal in Waskaganish, John Murdoch, decided to do something about this. Along with Gertie Murdoch, he started what became known as the Cree Way Project in an attempt to address this lack of pedagogical materials. The scope of the project was impressive. Within a few years, hundreds of booklets dealing with numerous topics were written by people from various Cree communities. One of the well-known contributors to this project is the late Annie Whiskeychan. A lesser-known contributor is Lawrence Jimiken.

The Jimiken Report on Cree Geographic Terms would be published in 1974 by the Cree Way Project. Authored by Lawrence with the assistance of Peter Denny, a linguist that specializes in Algonquian languages, the Jimiken Report would introduce students to the complex morphological structure of Cree geographic terminology. The report presents vocabulary associated with land forms spelled according to their underlying morphology rather than their pronunciation. This practice is a vital key to teaching the Cree language and should naturally form the foundation of any standard Cree orthography. Despite being ahead of its time in this respect, however, we continue to endorse orthographic practices based on phonetic spellings that occasionally obscure the meanings of words.

Patricia Raynault-Desgagné was one of the lucky southerners who benefitted from Lawrence’s endearing ways (July 2011)

The format in which the vocabulary is presented is also of immense pedagogical value. Lexical roots are listed first, followed by a series of word endings consisting of verbal medials, finals, and inflexions. The goal is to visually demonstrate to the student the various combinatorial possibilities of the Cree language. On page 5, for example, we find the lexical root ᐱᔅᒄ followed by a series of word endings with which it can be combined:

ᐱᔅᒄᐋᑯᓇᑳᐤ [a bump in snow]

ᐋᐱᔅᑳᐤ [bump of rock (rocky place)]

ᐊᑎᓈᐤ [high hill (quite high)]

ᓯᒀᐤ [bump in the ice]

ᐋᐗᐦᑳᐤ [bump in sandy place]

Awareness of this combinatorial feature of the Cree language is crucial to acquiring strong language skills. To help students acquire this awareness, the report would propose various exercises for teachers to use or adapt. Unfortunately, our local schools have yet to adopt an effective curriculum for teaching the Cree language and insightful details of the Jimiken Report remain largely ignored, 41 years after its release.

Our collective ability to recognize, acknowledge, and utilize the contributions of intelligent and industrious Cree individuals will be the key to moving our nation forward in future years. Lawrence was one of those individuals. Let’s all cherish his memory and honour him by recognizing, acknowledging, and utilizing his useful contributions as we assiduously work at building our Cree nation.

ᒋ ᓇᓈᔅᑯᒥᑎᓈᓐ Lawrence!

Lawrence Jimiken, 1949-2015 (photo by Patricia Raynault-Desgagné, July 2011)

VTA – Independent Dubitative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒻ…

1s → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᑐᒉ
1s → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᐙᑐᒉ
1p → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᓈᑐᒉ
1p → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑎᓈᓈᑐᒉ

2s → 1s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᑐᒉ
2s → 1p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᓈᑐᒉ
2p → 1s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᐙᑐᒉ
2p → 1p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᓈᓈᑐᒉ

3s → 1s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉ
3s → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓈᑐᒉ
3s → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉ
3s → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᑐᒉ
3s → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᑐᒉ
3p → 1s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 2s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3p → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ

1s → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉ
1s → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉᓂᒡ
2s → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉ
2s → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑐᒉᓂᒡ
1p → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᓈᑐᒉ
1p → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ
2p → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐙᑐᒉ
2p → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᐙᑐᒉᓂᒡ
21 → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᑐᒉ
21 → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᓈᑐᒉᓂᒡ

1s → 4  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
1p → 4  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᓈᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
2s → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
2p → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᐙᑐᒉᓐᐦ
21 → 4  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
3s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᑐᒉ
3p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᑐᒉᓂᒡ
3s → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᑐᒉ
3p → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᑐᒉᓂᒡ

4  → 1  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 1p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 2  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 2p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᐙᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 21 ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᓈᑐᒉᓐᐦ
4  → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉ
4  → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑰᑐᒉᓂᒡ

5  → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ

Passives
1s  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᑐᒉ
2s  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᑐᒉ
3s  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐐᑐᒉ

1p  ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᓈᑐᒉ
2p  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᐙᑐᒉ
21  ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᓈᓈᑐᒉ
3p  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐐᑐᒉ

4   ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᔩᑐᒉᓐᐦ

Note:  The …ᑐᒉ… sequence of the dubitative inflexion is almost always contracted to …ᑦᒉ… in everyday speech. Additionally, forms where the subject is a 4th person are generally difficult for most Cree-speakers to produce, including myself, and were elicited with much difficulty from other fluent speakers. Forms involving a 4th person subject and further obviative persons were unknown to me and other Cree-speakers whom I consulted.

VTA – Conjunct Subjunctive

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒻ…

1s → 2s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᓀ
1s → 2p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᑯᒉ
1p → 2s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᐦᒉ
1p → 2p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᐦᒉ

2s → 1s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᓀ
2s → 1p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔮᐦᒉ
2p → 1s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔦᑴ
2p → 1p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔮᐦᒉ

3s → 1s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑌ
3s → 1p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᒥᐦᑌ
3s → 2s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔅᑫ
3s → 2p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᑴ
3s → 21 ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᐦᑴ
3p → 1s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑣᐌᓂᒡ
3p → 1p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᒥᐦᑣᐌᓂᒡ
3p → 2s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔅᒀᐌᓂᒡ
3p → 2p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᒀᐌᓂᒡ
3p → 21 ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᐦᒀᐌᓂᒡ

1s → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᑫ
1s → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᒀᐌᓂᒡ
2s → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᑌ
2s → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᑣᐌᓂᒡ
1p → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᒋᐦᑌ
1p → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᒋᐦᑣᐌᓂᒡ
2p → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᑴ
2p → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᒀᐌᓂᒡ
21 → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᐦᑴ
21 → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᐦᒀᐌᓂᒡ

1s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᑫᓐᐦ
1p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᒋᐦᑌᓐᐦ
2s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᑌᓐᐦ
2p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᑴᓐᐦ
21 → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᐦᑴᓐᐦ
3s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑌ
3p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑣᐌᓂᒡ
3s → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᑌ
3p → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᑣᐌᓂᒡ

4  → 1  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔨᑌᓐᐦ
4  → 1p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᒥᐦᑌᓐᐦ
4  → 2s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔅᑫᓐᐦ
4  → 2p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᐧᑫᓐᐦ
4  → 21 ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᐦᐧᑫᓐᐦ
4  → 3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᑌ
4  → 3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᑣᐌᓂᒡ
4  → 5  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔨᑌᓐᐦ
4  → 6  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᔨᑌᓐᐦ

5  → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔨᑌᓐᐦ

Passives
1s  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔮᓀ
2s  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔭᓀ
3s  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᑌ

1p  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔮᐦᒉ
2p  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔦᑴ
21  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔭᐦᑴ
3p  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᑣᐌᓂᒡ

4s  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᔨᑌᓐᐦ
4p  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᔨᑣᐌᓐᐦ

Note: The following suppletive forms are commonly used by non-elderly speakers: …ᑯᔮᐦᒉ for …ᔭᒥᐦᑌ and …ᔭᒥᐦᑣᐌᓂᒡ; …ᑯᔦᑴ for …ᑖᑴ and …ᑖᒀᐌᓂᒡ; …ᑯᔭᐦᑴ for …ᑕᐦᑴ and …ᑕᐦᒀᐌᓂᒡ. For 4th person subjects, some speakers affix a final …ᓐᐦ. Most, however, make no formal distinction between 3rd and 4th person subjects when these suppletive forms are used.

VII – Conjunct Subjunctive

ᑕᐦᑳ…

3s ᑕᐦᑳᒉ
4s ᑕᐦᑳᔨᒉ

3p ᑕᐦᑳᒀᐌᓐᐦ
4p ᑕᐦᑳᔨᒀᐌᓐᐦ

ᐱᒦᐗᓐ…

3s ᐱᒦᐗᐦᒉ
4s ᐱᒦᐗᓂᔨᒉ

3p ᐱᒦᐗᐦᒀᐌᓐᐦ
4p ᐱᒦᐗᓂᔨᒀᐌᓐᐦ

Note:  Some speakers use a levelled out paradigm where all the conjunct inflexions are preceded by ᐦ.

VTI – Independent Indicative (Relational)

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓐ
1s → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓐᐦ
2s → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓐ
2s → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓐᐦ
3s → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒬᐤ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p → 3s ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓈᓐ
1p → 3p ᓂᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓈᓐᐦ
21 → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓈᓇᐤ
21 → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓈᓇᐤᐦ
2p → 3s ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓈᐙᐤ
2p → 3p ᒋᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒸᓈᐙᐤᐦ
3p → 4  ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒬᐗᒡ

VTI – Conjuct Subjunctive

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒫᓀ
2s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒪᓇ
3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᐦᑫ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒫᐦᒉ
21 ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒪᐦᑴ
2p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒣᑴ
3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᐦᒀᐌᓂᒡ

ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ
4s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔨᑌᓐᐦ
4p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔨᑣᐌᓐᐦ

Passive
3s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᒉ
4s ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᒉ

3p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᒀᐌᓐᐦ
4p ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᒀᐌᓐᐦ

VTI – Conjunct Indicative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ…

ᐊᐌᓐ
1s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒫᓐ
2s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒪᓐ
3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᐦᒃ

ᐊᐌᓂᒌ
1p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒫᐦᒡ
21 ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒪᐦᒄ
2p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒣᒄ
3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᐦᒀᐤ

ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ
4s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔨᒡᐦ
4p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᑕᒥᔨᑣᐤᐦ

Passive
3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᒡ
4s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᒡ

3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᒀᐤᐦ
4p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᒀᐤᐦ

VTA – Conjunct Indicative

ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒻ…

1s → 2s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᓐ
1s → 2p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᑯᒡ
1p → 2s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᐦᒡ
1p → 2p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᐦᒡ

2s → 1s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᓐ
2s → 1p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔮᐦᒡ
2p → 1s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔦᒄ
2p → 1p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔮᐦᒡ

3s → 1s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑦ
3s → 1p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᒥᐦᑦ
3s → 2s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔅᒃ
3s → 2p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᒄ
3s → 21 ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᐦᒄ
3p → 1s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑣᐤ
3p → 1p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᒥᐦᑣᐤ
3p → 2s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔅᒀᐤ
3p → 2p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᑯᒡ
3p → 21 ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᐦᑯᒡ

1s → 3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᒃ
1s → 3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᒀᐤ
2s → 3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᑦ
2s → 3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᑣᐤ
1p → 3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᒋᐦᑦ
1p → 3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᒋᐦᑣᐤ
2p → 3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᒄ
2p → 3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒣᑯᒡ
21 → 3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᐦᒄ
21 → 3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒪᐦᒀᐤ

1s → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᒃᐦ
1p → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᒋᐦᑦᐦ
2s → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᑦᐦ
2p → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒣᒄᐦ
21 → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒪᐦᒄᐦ
3s → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑦ
3p → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑣᐤ
3s → 5  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᑦ
3p → 5  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᑣᐤ

4  → 1  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔨᒡᐦ
4  → 1p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔭᒥᐦᑦᐦ
4  → 2  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᔅᒃᐦ
4  → 2p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑖᒄᐦ
4  → 21 ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑕᐦᒄᐦ
4  → 3s ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᑦ
4  → 3p ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᑣᐤ
4  → 5  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᔨᒡᐦ
4  → 6  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᒫᔨᒡᐦ

5  → 4  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑯᔨᒡᐦ

Passives
1s  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔮᓐ
2s  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔭᓐ
3s  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᑦ

1p  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔮᐦᒡ
2p  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔦᒄ
21  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒥᑲᐎᔭᐦᒄ
3p  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᑣᐤ

4s  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᔨᒡᐦ
4p  ᐁ ᑲᓇᐙᐸᒫᑲᓂᐎᔨᑣᐤᐦ

Note: The following suppletive forms are commonly used by non-elderly speakers: …ᑯᔮᐦᒡ for …ᔭᒥᐦᑦ and …ᔭᒥᐦᑣᐤ; …ᑯᔦᒄ for …ᑖᒄ and …ᑖᑯᒡ; …ᑯᔭᐦᒄ for …ᑕᐦᒄ and …ᑕᐦᑯᒡ. When the subject is a 4th person, a final  is suffixed to these suppletive forms.