ᒫᐦᒄ ᐅᒥᔻᒋᒧᐎᓐ

ᐱᔅᒋᐦᑕᓯᓇᐦᐃᑲᓐ 1

1 ᐁᑯᑕ ᒉᐦᑖᐯᒋᐸᔨᓂᔨᒡ ᐁ ᒥᔻᒋᒥᑯᓰᑦ ᒥᓈᑲᓐ᙮
2 ᑳ ᐃᑕᓯᓇᐦᐃᑳᑌᔨᒡ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐅᒪᓯᓇᐦᐃᒉᐎᓂᐦᒡ ᐅᒋᔅᒋᐌᐦᐃᒉᐤ ᔕᔮᐦᐆ,
« ᓂᑲ ᓃᑳᓂᑎᔕᐦᐙᐤ ᐊᐌᓐ ᒉ ᐯᑖᒋᒧᑦ ᒉᒌ ᒣᔅᑲᓈᐦᑳᔅᒄ᙮
3 « ᐯᐦᑖᑯᓯᐤ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁ ᐸᐹ ᑌᐺᑦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐊᔦᔅᑲᐎᐦᑖᐙᐦᒄ ᑎᐯᔨᐦᒋᑫᐤ ᐅᒣᔅᑲᓇᐤ,
« ᓀᔥᑦ ᑾᔭᔅᑯᔑᒧᐦᑖᐙᐦᒄ᙮
4 ᐁᒄ ᑲᔭᐹ ᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᑦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐ, ᐁ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᒉᑦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐁ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᑦ ᐊᓂᔨᐤ ᑴᔅᑳᑎᓰᐎ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᒉᐎᓂᔨᐤ ᒉ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐌᐯᔨᐦᒋᑳᑌᔨᒀᐤ ᐗᓂᑑᑕᒧᐎᓐᐦ᙮
5 ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᓈᑎᑯᐤ ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ ᐁ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᔨᒡᐦ ᒥᓯᐌ ᐦᐆᑖᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᔅᐱᐦᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᓖᒨᑌᓈᒥᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ᙮ ᑳ ᒌᔑ ᐙᐐᐦᑕᒥᔨᒡᐦ ᒫᒃ ᐅᐗᓂᑑᑕᒧᐎᓂᔨᐤᐦ, ᒌ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑕᐌᐤ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐦᑌᓐ ᐲᐦᒡ᙮
ᐦᐋᓇᓐ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᒋᒋᔥᑲᒻ ᐊᔮᓐᐦ ᐅᐱᔅᒀᐎᑲᓀᐤᐦ ᐅᐲᐙᔨᐤᐦ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐅᔑᐦᑖᑲᓂᐎᔨᒀᐤᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐲᔖᑲᓀᔮᐲᔨᐤ ᒌ ᐅᐸᐦᑯᑌᐦᐅᓂᐤ᙮ ᒀᔥᒀᔥᑯᐦᒋᔒᔕ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐋᒨ ᔔᑳᔨᐤ ᒌ ᐅᒦᒋᒥᐤ᙮
7 ᐁᑯᑌ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᔑ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᑦ,
« ᑲᑕ ᑕᑯᔑᓄ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁᑕᑕᐤ ᐁ ᓲᐦᑳᑎᓰᑦ ᐃᔅᐱᔖᑦ ᓃᔭ, ᐅᒪᔅᒋᓯᓀᔮᐲᐦ ᒫᒃ ᓇᒪᐐᔭ ᒣᒋᒻ ᓂᑌᐯᔨᐦᑖᑯᓯᐙᓐ ᒉ ᓇᐌᐸᔨᐦᐅᐗᒃ ᒉᒌ ᐋᐱᐦᑯᓇᒧᒃ᙮
8 « ᓂᐲᐦᒡ ᓃᔭ ᒋᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᑎᓈᐙᐤ, ᐐᔭ ᒫᒃ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᔨᒡᐦ ᒋᑲ ᐅᐦᒋ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᑯᐙᐤ᙮
9 ᐁᑯᑕ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐯᒋ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᑦ ᔔ ᓯᓛᑎᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐊᓐᑌ ᓖᓪ ᔅᒌᐦᒡ᙮ ᒌ ᓰᐦᑲᐦᐋᐦᑖᑯᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐦᑌᓐ ᐲᐦᒡ᙮
10 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᑲᐹᑦ ᔔ ᒌ ᐙᐸᐦᑕᒻ ᒌᔑᑯᔨᐤ ᐁ ᑖᑐᐸᔨᓂᔨᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᒬᐦᒡ ᐅᒦᒦᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᔑ ᔮᔒᑐᑖᑯᑦ᙮
11 ᐁᒄ ᑳ ᐯᐦᑖᑯᓯᑦ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐊᓐᑌ ᑭᐦᒋᑮᔑᑯᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᒌᔭ ᑳ ᓵᒋᐦᐃᑖᓐ ᓂᑯᓯᔅ, ᑌᑲᔥ ᒋᓇᐦᐃᔭᐌᐦᐃᓐ᙮
12 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᒌ ᐃᔑᑎᔕᐦᐅᑯᐤ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ᙮
13 ᓀᒥᑕᓇᐤ ᒌ ᑕᐦᑐᒌᔑᑴᐤ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᐁ ᑯᑴᒌᐦᐃᑯᑦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᑯᑴᒋᐦᐃᐌᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᒌ ᑲᓇᐌᔨᒥᑯᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐁᓐᒋᓪᐦ ᒣᒀᒡ ᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᑦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁ ᐃᐦᑖᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᐌᓰᓴ᙮
14 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᑳ ᒋᐸᐦᐙᑲᓂᐎᔨᒡᐦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ, ᒌ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᐤ ᔔ ᐊᓐᑌ ᓖᓕᐦᒡ ᐁ ᒥᔻᒋᒫᑦ ᒪᓂᑑᐦ,
15 ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐋᔥ ᑎᐱᐸᔨᓐ᙮ ᐯᔓᓈᑾᓂᔨᐤ ᒪᓂᑑ ᐅᒋᒫᐎᐎᓐ᙮ ᑴᔅᑳᑎᓰᒄ ᓀᔥᑦ ᑖᐺᐦᑕᒧᒄ ᐆ ᒥᔻᒋᒧᐎᓐ᙮
16 ᐁ ᐱᒫᔕᑳᒣᑦ ᒫᒃ ᓖᓪ ᑲᐦᐃᑲᓂᐦᒡ, ᒌ ᐙᐸᒣᐤ ᒨᓐᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐐᒋᔖᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᓐᑕᓓᐦ ᐁ ᐸᒋᑕᐦᐙᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᓵᑲᐦᐃᑲᓂᐦᒡ᙮ ᐁᑯᑌ ᑳ ᐃᔑ ᐸᑳᔅᒋᐦᐅᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐐᒋᔖᓂᑐᔨᒡᐦ᙮
17 ᔔ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᐃᑌᐤ,
« ᐯᒋ ᓅᓱᓀᐦᐅᒄ᙮ ᒋᑲ ᐃᔑᐦᐃᑎᓈᐙᐤ ᐊᔨᔑᔨᓂᐗᒡ ᒉᒌ ᐱᑕᐦᐅᔦᑯᒡ᙮
18 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑲᑌᐗᒡ ᐅᑦᐊᐦᔭᐲᐙᐤᐦ ᐁ ᐊᑎ ᓅᓱᓀᐦᐙᑣᐤ᙮
19 ᐊᐗᓯᑌᔒᔥ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᑦ, ᒌ ᐙᐸᒣᐤ ᑳ ᐐᒋᔖᓂᑐᔨᒡᐦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐦᑯᑉᐦ (ᐸᑏ ᐅᑯᓯᓴ), ᒌᒫᓂᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᐦᑖᔨᒡᐦ ᐁ ᐗᐌᑕᐦᔭᐯᔨᒡᐦ᙮
20 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑐᒣᐤ᙮ ᐁᑯᑕ ᒫᒃ ᐊᓐᑕ ᒌᒫᓂᐦᒡ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒋ ᓇᑲᑖᑣᐤ ᐊᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᐅᐦᑖᐐᐙᐤᐦ ᐸᑏᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᐋᐸᒋᐦᐋᑲᓐᐦ ᐁ ᐊᑎ ᓅᓱᓀᐦᐙᑣᐤ᙮
21 ᐁᒄ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᑣᐤ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐦᐆᒨᑌᓈᒥᐦᒡ᙮ ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᒌᔑᑳᔨᒡ ᒌ ᐲᐦᑐᒉᐤ ᔔ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐐ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᑦ᙮
22 ᒌ ᒫᒪᔅᑳᑕᒬᐗᒡ ᒫᒃ ᐃᔨᓂᐗᒡ ᐅᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᐎᓂᔨᐤ ᐌᓴ ᒌ ᐃᔑ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒪᐌᐤ ᒬᐦᒡ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐁ ᐅᒋᒫᐌᔨᐦᑖᑯᓯᑦ, ᓇᒪᐐᔭ ᒬᐦᒡ ᐊᓂᒌ ᑳ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᑣᐤ ᐗᔭᔕᐌᐎᓂᔨᐤ᙮
23 ᓴᔅᒋᑯᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᑌᐺᐤ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᐦᒡ ᐃᔨᓂᐤ ᑳ ᐲᐦᒋᔥᑳᑯᑦ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ ᐁᑳ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᔨᒡᐦ,
24 ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᑖᓐ ᐙ ᐃᐦᑑᑕᐎᔮᐦᒡ ᔔ ᓯᓛᑎᐦᒡ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒌᔭᓐ᙮ ᒋᒌ ᑕᑯᔑᓐ ᐋ ᒉᒌ ᓂᔑᐗᓈᒋᐦᐃᔮᐦᒡ? ᒋᒋᔅᒉᔨᒥᑎᓐ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᐎᔭᓐ, ᒌᔭ ᐅᐸᔦᐦᒋᓰᒻᐦ ᒪᓂᑑ!
25 ᔔ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᒋᑐᑌᐤ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐁᑳ ᒋᑐ! ᐯᒋ ᐗᔭᐐ ᐎᔮᐦᒡ ᐅᐦᒋ!
26 ᐊᓐ ᒫᒃ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᒄ ᐁᑳ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᑦ ᒌ ᑯᔥᑯᔥᑯᐸᔨᐦᐁᐤ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᐃᔨᓂᐤᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᒌ ᐊᔮᔑᐦᑴᐤ ᐁ ᐯᒋ ᐗᔭᐐᑦ᙮
27 ᑳ ᐃᔅᐱᔑ ᒫᒪᔅᑳᑕᐦᒀᐤ ᒫᒃ ᒥᓯᐌ ᒌ ᑯᑴᒋᒥᑐᐗᒡ,
« ᒉᒀᓐ ᐆ? ᐅᔥᒋ ᒋᔅᒋᓄᐦᐊᒫᒉᐎᓐ ᐋ? ᒬᐦᒡ ᐅᒋᒫᐦᒡ ᐁ ᐃᑕᔕᐌᑦ ᐙᐙᒡ ᐁ ᐱᔑᒋᐦᐃᑯᑦ ᐁᑳ ᑳ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᓯᔨᒡᐦ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ!
28 ᐁᑯᑕ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐊᑎ ᒥᓯᐦᑌᐸᔨᓂᔨᒡ ᐁ ᑎᐹᒋᒥᑯᓰᑦ ᔔ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁ ᐃᔅᐱᐦᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓖᓕᐦᒡ᙮
29 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐗᔭᐐᑣᐤ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᐦᒡ, ᒌ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᐌᐗᒡ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐐᒋᔩᐦᒡ ᒨᓐᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᓐᑕᓓᐦ ᐁ ᐐᒉᐎᑯᑣᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐦᑯᑉᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐦᐋᓇᓐᐦ᙮
30 ᒨᓐ ᒫᒃ ᐅᓯᑯᓴ ᒌ ᐱᒥᔑᓂᔨᐤᐦ ᐁ ᒋᔑᑌᐙᔅᐱᓀᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᒌ ᐐᐦᑕᒪᐙᑲᓂᐎᐤ ᒫᒃ ᔔ ᑳ ᐯᒋ ᐲᐦᑐᒉᐙᑦ᙮
31 ᑳ ᐅᑎᐦᑖᑦ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᐅᑎᓂᔅᒉᓀᐤ ᐁ ᐅᐦᐱᓈᑦ᙮ ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑲᑎᑯᐤ ᐅᒋᔑᑌᐙᔅᐱᓀᐎᓐ, ᐁᒄ ᑳ ᐊᑎ ᐋᐸᑎᓯᐙᑦ᙮
32 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐅᑖᑯᔑᔨᒡ, ᑳ ᐃᔥᒀ ᐸᐦᒋᔑᒧᔨᒡᐦ ᐲᓯᒶ, ᒌ ᐯᑕᒪᐙᑲᓂᐎᐤ ᔔ ᒥᓯᐌ ᑳ ᐋᐦᑯᓯᔨᒡᐦ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐲᐦᒋᔥᑳᑯᔨᒡᐦ ᒪᒋ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ᙮
33 ᒥᓯᐌ ᑳ ᐃᑕᔑᑣᐤ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐅᑌᓈᐦᒡ ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᒫᐗᒋᐦᐃᑐᐗᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐃᔥᒀᐦᑌᒥᐦᒡ᙮
34 ᒌ ᒦᓇᐙᒋᐦᐁᐤ ᒫᒃ ᒥᐦᒉᑦ ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ ᓇᓈᐦᑲᐤ ᑳ ᐃᑖᔅᐱᓀᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᒌ ᐗᔭᐐᑎᔕᐦᐌᐤ ᓀᔥᑦ ᒥᐦᒉᑦ ᒪᒋ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ, ᒥᒄ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᐅᐦᒋᐦᐁᐤ ᐁ ᐊᔭᒥᔨᒡᐦ ᐁ ᒌ ᒋᔅᒉᔨᒥᑯᑦ ᐊᐌᓐ ᐃᔮᐎᑦ ᐐᔭ᙮
35 ᐐᐸᒡ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᒉᒋᔐᐹᔮᔨᒡ, ᑆᒧᔥ ᑳ ᐙᐸᓂᔨᒡ, ᒌ ᐗᓂᔥᑳᐤ ᔔ᙮ ᒌ ᐗᔭᐐᐤ ᒫᒃ ᒉ ᓇᑕᐎ ᐊᔭᒥᐦᐋᑦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᓂᐎᔨᒡ᙮
36 ᐁᒄ ᒫᒃ ᒨᓐ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐐᒉᐎᑯᑦ ᒌ ᓈᓇᑕᐙᐸᒣᐗᒡ᙮
37 ᐃᔥᑯᑕᒃ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᒥᔅᑲᐙᑣᐤ ᒌ ᐃᑌᐗᒡ,
« ᒥᓯᐌ ᐊᐌᓐ ᒋᓈᓇᑕᐙᐸᒥᒄ!
38 ᔔ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᔥᑴᐗᔑᐦᐁᐤ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐋᐦᒌᐤᐦ ᐃᑐᐦᑌᑖᐤ᙮ ᑯᑕᒃᐦ ᐅᑌᓇᐤᐦ ᑳ ᐯᔓᓈᑯᐦᒀᐤᐦ ᓈᑌᑖᐤ ᒉᒌ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᔮᓐ ᐊᓐᑌ ᓀᔥᑦ᙮ ᐁᐗᒄ ᐌᓴᓐ ᐌᐦᒌ ᑕᑯᔑᓂᔮᓐ᙮
39 ᒌ ᐸᐹᒧᐦᑌᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐁ ᐃᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ ᓖᓕᐦᒡ ᐁ ᑲᒉᔅᑴᑦ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐅᑦᐊᔭᒥᐦᐁᐎᑲᒥᑯᔩᐦᒡ ᓀᔥᑦ ᐁ ᐗᔭᐐᑎᔕᐦᐙᑦ ᒪᒋ ᐊᐦᒑᐦᑾ᙮
40 ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᓈᑎᑯᐤ ᒫᒃ ᐃᔨᓂᐤᐦ ᑳ ᐅᔕᑳᐙᔅᐱᓀᔨᒡᐦ᙮ ᑳ ᐅᒋᐦᒌᐦᑯᓇᐲᔥᑖᑯᑦ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑐᑕᒫᑯᐤ ᐁ ᐃᑎᑯᑦ,
« ᒌᔥᐱᓐ ᐐ ᑑᑕᒪᓀ, ᒋᑲ ᒌ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᐦᐃᓐ᙮
41 ᑳ ᒋᑎᒫᒉᔨᒫᑦ ᒫᒃ ᔔ ᒌ ᔓᐎᓂᔅᒉᔩᔥᑕᐌᐤ ᐁ ᓵᒥᓈᑦ ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᓂᐐ ᑑᑌᓐ᙮ ᒋᑲ ᐐ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᐦᐃᑲᐎᓐ!
42 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᓇᑲᑎᑯᐤ ᐅᔕᑳᐙᔅᐱᓀᐎᓂᔨᐤ, ᒌ ᒦᓇᐙᑎᓰᐤ ᒫᒃ᙮
43 ᑏᐌᐦᒡ ᒫᒃ ᒌ ᒋᐦᒋᑎᔕᐦᐌᐤ ᓲᐦᒃ ᐁ ᐊᔮᒀᒥᒫᑦ,
44 ᐁ ᐃᑗᑦ,
« ᐋᔨᑌ ᐁᑳ ᒉ ᐅᐦᒋ ᐐᐦᑕᒪᐗᑦ ᐊᐌᓐ, ᒥᒄ ᒫᒃ ᓇᑕᐎ ᐙᐸᐦᑎᔨᓱᔥᑕᐤ ᐅᒪᒍᔥᑌᐦᐊᒫᒉᐤ ᐁᒄ ᒉ ᐸᒋᑎᓇᒪᓐ ᐊᓂᐦᐃ ᑳ ᐃᑕᔕᐌᑯᐸᓀ ᐊᓂᔮ ᔐ ᒉᒌ ᓅᑾᐦᒡ ᑖᐺ ᐁ ᒌ ᐸᔦᐦᒋᐦᐃᑲᐎᔭᓐ᙮
45 ᑕᔭᑯᒡ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᒋᐦᑐᐦᑌᑦ ᓭᐦᒉᔾ ᒌ ᐊᑎ ᐙᐐᐦᑕᒻ ᐅᑎᐹᒋᒧᐎᓐ ᐲᐦᔨᒻ ᐁᑳ ᐙᓂᔅᒉ ᐁ ᒌ ᐲᐦᑐᒉᑦ ᔔ ᐅᑌᓈᐦᒡ᙮ ᐋᑕ ᒫᒃ ᑳ ᐃᐦᑖᑦ ᒫᓐᐦ ᐗᔭᐐᑎᒣ ᐊᓐᑌ ᐁ ᐱᑯᑕᔅᑲᒥᑳᔨᒡ, ᔮᐱᒡ ᒌ ᐯᒋ ᓈᑎᑯᐤ ᐊᐌᔨᐤᐦ ᒥᓯᐌ ᐗᔦᔥ ᐁ ᐅᐦᑐᐦᑌᔨᒡᐦ᙮

A Grammar of Waswanipi Cree

Welcome to what will hopefully become a comprehensive grammar of the Cree dialect spoken by the Waswanipi people. Being the dialect my family speaks, I have naturally always had a special interest for it. However, there is another reason for my interest in this dialect that revolves around the number of its idiosyncrasies. In fact, the dialect is classified as Southern East Cree, but very little has been said about the many features that distinguish it from the way Southern East Cree is spoken in the region. I hope to draw from my many years of experience working on lexicographic projects for the various regional dialects, including Moose Cree, Atikamekw, and the various dialects of East Cree, to eventually elucidate some of these distinctive features in the dialect spoken by the Waswanipi people. Ultimately, these features will testify to the continuous nature of Cree, also appropriately known as the Cree dialect continuum. I will be updating this grammar as time permits. For now, some basic verb paradigms.

Word Classes

Nouns

I (inanimate)

Independent
Dependent

A (animate)

Independent
Dependent

Verbs

AI (animate intransitive stems)

Independent

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Dubitative (Relational)
Subjective
Subjective (Relational)

Conjunct

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Subjunctive
Subjunctive (Relational)

Imperative

Immediate
Immediate (Relational)

II (intransitive inanimate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Dubitative
Subjective

Conjunct

Indicative
Dubitative
Subjunctive

TA (transitive animate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Dubitative

Conjunct

Indicative
Subjunctive

Imperative

Immediate

TI (transitive inanimate stems)

Independent

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative

Conjunct

Indicative
Indicative (Relational)
Dubitative
Subjunctive
Subjunctive (Relational)

Imperative

Immediate
Immediate (Relational)

Particles

Morphology

Nominal Morphology

Verbal Morphology

Publication of a Grammar of the Cree Language

 

imageLast week marked the publication of the Grammaire de la langue innue, the first ever modern and comprehensive grammar of the Cree language. So while I usually lay my head down around eleven o’clock, for the past few days my eyes have remained open long after the time of my nightly reclination as I diligently read through each of its 602 pages.

For those unversed in the study of the Cree language or its various appellations, what is here referred to as the Innu language is a group of Cree dialects spoken by around 11,000 people along the north shore of what is now generally known as the St-Lawrence River in Québec. Yet, despite the title of the book, there is no such thing as a homogeneous Innu language. Instead, the book introduces us to a variety of dialects who, for historical and political reasons, have come to be grouped under that term.

Differences aside, the speakers of these dialects have managed, over time, to agree on a single standard spelling system – no simple task considering the glaring phonological discrepancies among the dialects in question. But this move towards orthographic unity, encouraged by their conspicuous cultural and ethnic unity, has been of utmost importance for the development of literacy and the promotion and preservation of the Cree language in those communities. Without such a standard orthography, the present grammar would have most likely failed at being so dialectally inclusive and at successfully targeting the actual speakers of the language who, more often than not, are not trained linguists and might not manage to read an orthography based on conventions used in linguistics.

The author of this grammar, Lynn Drapeau, is a well-known linguist in the field of Algic languages. Having done research since the 1970’s on the particular dialect spoken in Pessamit, she is one of a handful of linguists who has spent a considerable amount of time in our communities to eventually become a speaker of our language. This investment of hers would also result in her 1991 publication of what was then the most extensive dictionary of the any Cree dialect, her Dictionnaire montagnais-français. But her crowning achievement will unquestionably be her Grammaire de la langue innue, which she managed to perfect by dedicating her post-retirement time to parsing countless hours of recordings of elderly monolingual speakers and holding discussions on various points of grammar with her academic and communal research groups.

I have had the pleasure of having the author supervise my work as a graduate student in linguistics, where I focused my interests on the history of the Cree language. It was then that I came to understand how what appears to be a wide and disparate variety of Cree dialects is in fact a language that remains incredibly similar, lexically and grammatically, regardless of its regional innovations. This grammar will therefore undoubtedly prove useful to speakers of other Cree dialects until modern and comprehensive grammars of their dialects are published as well.